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1933 was the year that Hitler and the Nazi party came to power. The initial basis for this was a national election in which the Nazis secured a substantial fraction of the vote. (Immediately after the election, the Nazis burned the Reichtag (the German parliament) and started repressing their political opposition though a campaign of imprisonment and murder.)




A data frame with 681 rows and 7 variables. Each row is a German precinct.

  • self: share of potential voters who are self-employed

  • blue: share of potential voters who are blue-collar workers

  • white: share of potential voters who are white-collar workers

  • domestic: share of potential voters who are employed domestically

  • unemployed: share of potential voters who are un-employed

  • nvoter: number of eligible voters (not clear if this include people who didn't vote)

  • nazivote: number of votes for the Nazis


  • Imai, Kosuke. 2017. Quantitative Social Science: An Introduction. Princeton University Press. URL from whence these data were added to this package. In QSS, the data are called nazis.

  • G. King, O. Rosen, M. Tanner, A.F. Wagner (2008) “Ordinary economic voting behavior in the extraordinary election of Adolf Hitler.” Journal of Economic History, vol. 68, pp. 951–996.#'