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These data come from the Centers for Disease Controls "public use file" recording all 3,699,040 (known) births in the US in 2022. Births2022 is a random sample of size 20,000 from the comprehensive file




A data frame with 20,000 observations on the following 38 variables. The unit of observation is a birth.

  • month: 1-12

  • dow: Day of week: Sun, Mon, Tues, ...

  • place: hospital, home, clinic, etc.

  • paternity: is paternity acknowledged. Y, N, and X. X stands for "not applicable" which is shorthand for the mother is married (consequently the husband is presumed to be the father).

  • meduc: mother's educational level. <8 is 8th grade or less, HSG+ means high school plus some college but no degree.

  • feduc: father's education. Same coding as meduc.

  • married: Is the mother married?

  • mage: mother's age

  • fage: father's age

  • total_kids: how many total births to mother including this one.

  • interval: months since last birth (if applicable).

  • prenatal_start: Which trimester did the mother start prenatal care?

  • prenatal_visits: How many total prenatal care visits.

  • mheight: Mother's height in inches

  • wt_pre: Mother's weight in pounds before pregnancy

  • wt_delivery: Mother's weight in pounds at delivery

  • diabetes_pre: Did the mother have diabetes before pregnancy

  • diabetes_gest: Did the mother develop gestational diabetes

  • hbp_pre: Did the mother have high blood pressure before pregancy

  • hbp_gest: Did the mother develop high blood pressure during pregnancy

  • eclampsia: Did the mother develop eclampsia

  • induction: Was labor induced?

  • augmentation: Was the uterus stimulated to increase frequency, duration, and intensity of contractions.

  • anesthesia: Was the mother given anesthesia?

  • presentation: Baby's presentation at birth (e.g. cephalic or breech)

  • method: method of delivery (vaginal or C-section)

  • trial_at_labor: For mother's who delivered by C-section, was there an attempt at labor.

  • attendant: MD, DO, midwife, other

  • payment: How was the bill paid?

  • apgar5, apgar10: APGAR scores (0-10) at five and ten minutes after birth.

  • plurality: singletons, twins, triplets, quadruplets (as an integer 1-4)

  • sex: Baby's sex

  • duration: Duration of gestation, in weeks by "obstretric estimate."

  • menses: Last normal menses month: 1-12 (Jan-Dec)

  • weight: Baby's weight (in grams)

  • living: Baby living at time of birth report

  • breastfed: Baby breastfed at time of discharge


US Centers for Disease Control "Natality Public Use File", CDC vital stats online


"User Guide to the 2022 Natality Public Use File"